D. A. Frese, D. A. Frese * Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. Search for other works by this author on: Oxford Academic. Farmers can suffer serious injuries while attending cows at calving time. Never get in the race with large cattle. WorkSafe NZ accepts these recommendations as current industry best practice. Move confidently, but carefully. Injured people should seek medical advice, particularly if they have a serious and/or open wound, or if they have a health condition that makes them more likely to become infected. Never trust a bull – particularly the ‘lone bull’ reared or kept in isolation. Don’t chase cattle. If you’re building new or refitting your existing yards, steel yards are a good option. When doing this consult an expert. If using sharps, such as needles and syringes, carefully dispose of the sharps in a rigid-walled, puncture-resistant sharps container. It should include running water, liquid soap and a way to dry their hands, like paper towels. Maintain and lubricate the head bail and crush. Make the race gate self-closing. Close gates behind you so other animals can’t enter unexpectedly. 10 Successful Farming listens for cattle farmers and ranchers. Some get serious injuries, like broken bones, and people have been killed. Either stand well back and out of range or, when you’re working close, turn side-on and get in very close. Try to keep a fence or vehicle between you and the cow. being bitten by flies, mosquitos, ticks or fleas that have also bitten infected animals. low-stress cattle handling techniques? Cattle also have poor depth perception, which can cause them to be nervous in the dark, around shadows, and skittish of foreign objects. Use the flight zone and balance lines to make cattle move in the direction you want. Leather boots with steel toe-caps are best. Even skilled cattle handlers take knocks or kicks during their careers. A gate at the rear of the race that stops stock from escaping the race. Prepare the route in advance. “Something that may not be loud or unexpected to us could be very loud or startling to them,” Eiholzer explained. Give the cows time to mother-up with their calves before moving. Do not use an electric prodder on sensitive areas, including the udder, eyes, nose, anus, vulva or testicles. Some things upset cattle and other things calm them down. Many times, bulls stomp, put their head down, or arch their back before they attack. To learn more about safely handing livestock, check out these articles from Successful Farming magazine. Make surfaces non-slip where possible. Don’t try to move a dangerous bull on foot or alone. Don’t put your arms or legs through the race walls 5. Try to get all their heads up before you start the job. Exit slowly and calmly, keeping the bull in sight. The area around an animal that, if you enter, will cause it to move. The cow’s eyes, on either side of their head, give them a wide range of vision. Straighten your knees to lift it. A rail (usually in a milking shed) placed behind an animal’s rear legs to stop the animal from kicking people. Ohio State University Extension, 2008, Animal Welfare (Dairy Cattle) Code of Welfare 2010, National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, Animal Welfare (Painful Husbandry Procedures) Code of Welfare 2005, National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, Animal Welfare (Sheep and Beef Cattle) Code of Welfare 2010, National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, Animal Welfare (Transport within New Zealand) Code of Welfare 2011, National Animal Welfare Advisory Committee, Guidelines for the Provision of Safety & Health in Agriculture, OSH, 1996, Handling Cattle Safely: No Bull Tips to Keep You out of Trouble, ACC, 2012, Sheep and Cattle Handling Skills: A Manual for New Zealand Conditions, Robert J. Holmes. Keep your head away from the animal’s head in case it jerks up. If you have to lift a calf, use your legs and keep your back as straight as possible. Bulls are more dangerous when there are other bulls around. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some types can cause serious food poisoning. Many injuries to the handler could be avoided by understanding animal behavior, being aware of environmental conditions, having proper facilities, and using safe handling techniques. They can’t see directly behind at all. To keep animal stress to a minimum, the pressure zone is an effective and highly efficient method of controlling cattle movement. Too much mud is a slipping hazard for cattle and humans. Don’t try to … If you treat them gently at those times, it’ll pay off in the future. Check that your yards meet any local authority rules and regulations. Do not use the prodder on an animal that has no room to move forward. Information is provided 'as is' and solely for informational purposes, not for trading purposes or advice. While a tap on the nose or back with your waddy or hand can get cattle moving along a race, only do it sparingly. This could quickly lead to a dangerou… Trying to tackle a job shorthanded could result in serious injury or death. Muster early in the morning or towards nightfall when the temperatures are cooler and the animals have been grazing for a while. See more ideas about cattle corrals, cattle… cattle size and number. Do not get it on your skin. Good workplace health and safety can have a direct cost benefit in ensuring productivity and performance of the organisation. Even apparently quiet bulls can kick, crush or gore people to death easily. This representative can take two days paid leave each year to do approved health and safety training. After washing, it’s just as important to thoroughly dry your hands to avoid getting sick. With corner posts of a fence line to secure, I knew that mixing the cement might be a problem. People in their ‘personal space’, particularly around the head. Keep bulls moving at a trot until they’re well into the paddock and clear of the gate. They work together and get cattle to do what they want – quietly, smoothly and safely. In either situation, bulls can be extremely dangerous. IAE offer expertise gained from many years of supplying cattle handling systems to suit every situation from many of the largest U.K. cattle markets to the most awkward sites in fields and on farms. Dominant animals will turn on inferior animals if the inferior ones push them, adding to the problem. Some management tasks (such as vaccination, dehorning, administering medication, putting in ear tags, etc.) A cow who feels her calf is in danger may quickly become aggressive. Put a piece of cloth on the end to make a flag. See the section ‘Principles of Safe Cattle Yard Design’ for more information. Make sure workers have a clean place to wash and dry their hands. Cattle usually don’t like being loaded onto a trailer and some will resist. Many incidents involving cattle happen to people beyond normal retirement age, when they are less agile. Stay on the fringes and to one side so they don’t panic and scatter. When closing a yard gate behind a mob of cattle, try to stand to the side. Understanding these will make your job easier. If a bull stars to demonstrate signs of aggression, stop what you are doing, and get out of the pen. The chances of injury increase if cattle are irritated, afraid or angry. But some infected people may have no symptoms at all. Driving the mob from the rear won’t speed up loading – the dominant cattle in the middle won’t be pushed along by the tail-enders. Let staff and other people, like vets, know the potential problems. If cornered by a bull, don’t move too fast. Consider the risks carefully before anyone over 65 works with cattle, and if so, what they can safely do. When working in a group of animals, avoid walking in the middle where you are more likely to get accidentally kicked or trampled. Use them for mustering, but tie them up once the cattle are in the yards. Another hazard is using two-wheeled motorbikes or quad bikes during mustering. Good facilities help cattle handlers collect performance data, which is critical Cattle have a significant weight advantage, can move quickly, and can be unpredictable. Between 1987 and 2008, there were 261 people attacked by bulls in the U.S. Close to 60% of those people were killed. If people are hurt at work, clean the wound properly and cover it with a water-resistant dressing. Never dehorn large cattle when you’re alone in the race. So you need to show authority and confidence. 1.2 Who should use this Guide? However, they can be noisy – reduce the noise with well-placed bits of rubber. Try to stay out of an animal’s ‘personal space’ around its head. If you’re alongside the animal and move forward, it will move backward. Buckets or troughs of water that are used by several people are not suitable. Animal-related injuries to employees can be due to preoccupation, impatience, or anger by the animal or the handler! Try to make the experience as pleasant as possible or the cattle will resist next time. It’s better if cattle are not moved with low sun shining directly into their eyes. There are logical exceptions, such as excellent bull facilities where no direct contact is needed. Feb 25, 2019 - Cattle corral designs & cattle handling system ideas from Canada's leader in livestock equipment. The following increase your risk of injury: If you have to catch a calf, keep it between you and the mother. In all cases, without exception, send aggressive bulls to slaughter. When you’re working up close, whichever way you move through those lines, the animal will move the other way: Your voice is a useful cattle handling tool. Practice using a constant voice in a soothing tone to let the cattle know where you are, and lower the chances of you surprising and frightening them. A ramp used to load animals onto a stock truck for transport. Make sure livestock are drawn through by a clear view ahead. Moving through the balance line will cause the animal to move in the opposite direction. It affects both humans and other animals. Keep them a good distance apart. Know where the exits are before you get in, and always keep track of where the bull is while you’re working. Wear steel-capped boots when working in cattle yards. This is someone employees can go to when they have any concerns or suggestions about health and safety in the workplace. Minimise this by castrating as early as possible, preferably within the first week of life. Work out what needs doing and set up a plan. Inserting cattle tags is risky because cattle neck muscles are much stronger than your arms. Questionnaires were administered with personal visits to cattle handlers to assess the handling practices and relevant information relating to cattle welfare and slaughtering. This Guide assists duty holders manage their obligations under the work health and safety (WHS) laws. Never underestimate the speed, power or accuracy of a kick from cattle. Good cattle handling facilities are necessary for all cattle operations, regardless of the number of cattle. Don’t put your arms, head or legs through the race walls. 1. Install field or plastic drains. inexperienced handlers – cattle recognise fear and may react unpredictably, new or infrequently handled cattle – cattle can be more difficult to handle if it’s their first time in the yards, they’re in new yards or with different handlers, the fences and catwalks are in good condition, there are no bolts or broken rails sticking out, the head bail works smoothly and can adjust for the size of cattle, that gates latch and they can open or close quickly, the yard is well lit, or there are torches for night work. Don’t let manure build up. keep records of employee training and instruction, identifying which jobs each employee can and can’t do. Tell everyone working with animals about health and hygiene when working with cattle and in animal areas. Bulls are more dangerous the older they get. ’Section 2A Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, Code of Practice for the Care & Handling of Beef Cattle: Review of Scientific Research on Priority Issues, Karen Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Joseph Stookey, Janice Berg, & John Campbell. there are catwalks along forcing pens, races and loading ramps, there are escape points and gates for emergency getaways, there’s a way to hold movable ramps in place securely, maintain animal welfare and production standards, do an induction for new employees – show them around the farm and tell them about hazards and safety procedures, identify what skills, knowledge or competencies employees need to do each task, have ways to train employees – for example, use external training providers or do on-farm instruction, make sure people only do the work if they’re trained and/or properly supervised. Otherwise, restrain the cattle in the crush and (if necessary) get a second person to hold the head. Please read this guidance in conjunction with all relevant industry standards that apply to you as a PCBU. A herd of beef cattle that have been handled infrequently will start moving if you get within 100 metres.Entering the cattle’s flight zone will get them moving. Restrain untrained dogs until cattle stop moving. As calves grow they quickly become very heavy. Always wear a helmet. Hitting cattle frightens them and makes them dangerous and harder to work with. They can turn and attack when the handler lets the animal out of the head bail. Get the animal veterinary treatment as soon as is practical. This means that you risk injecting yourself instead of the animal. Cattle are large, powerful animals. Turning and running from the bull invites being chased and they are usually faster. Look out for aggressive mother cows. Agitated cattle are a particular risk. When you’ve finished drafting, keep the two mobs where they can see each other. The most recent theories in animal welfare and operative safety have been incorporated into our latest designs including semi-circular forcing pens and sweeping curved races. Otherwise, dig a drainage trench and fill it loosely with rubble. Call your vet and/or the MPI biosecurity hotline for any unknown or unfamiliar illness. Install them where there’s a view to open space. Stay behind the kick rails wherever possible. Lining an existing race with plywood significantly improves cattle flow through the race. What are some of the health and safety risks associated with my industry? Cattle Handling Equipment. Bulls can be dangerous, particularly if aggressive. They learn quickly and they soon work out who frightens them and who treats them well. Do not use the prodder on an animal for more than one second at a time, and for no more than five times in a row. Invert safety hinges so the gate can’t be moved. Provide PPE to protect workers’ clothing, skin and face from touching animal blood and body fluids. Loading and unloading also involves working in tight spaces with cattle. Carry out a pest control programme to discourage rats and other pests. Older bulls: a bull’s temperament changes as it ages, from a playfully aggressive yearling to defensive, territorial aggression as a 2–3 year old. Steel-caps can prevent broken or bruised toes if cattle stand on them. For example: Handling cattle safely is a skill that comes with time and experience. Surface cattle yards with material that lets people and animals move freely in all weather conditions. For difficult animals and bulls, use a head bail. The person controlling the drafting gate has to work closely with the cattle. Long sleeves and trousers can protect you if you’re rubbed against the rails or kicked. Avoid bars or gaps that could trap hooves. Mustering cattle is hazardous. What do you need to think about when managing your workplace hazardous substances? Board up the forcing pen (at both sides of the race mouth) and the corners in pens. Get out of the pen as soon as it’s safe to do so. You need physical strength and might receive musculoskeletal injuries. Safety for the Cattle Handler Th e proper handling of cattle should lead to more effi cient cattle handling with less chance of injury to the handler or the cattle. Industry experts helped WorkSafe NZ develop this guide. Look up. The loading race should be the width of one animal. Build catwalks on forcing pens, races and loading ramps. This guidance will be progressively reviewed and either updated, replaced with other guidance, or revoked. A skin condition that is usually caught from the udders of infected cows. Make sure it’s in excellent condition – if it’s faulty, replace it before you start. Have the right applicator for the type of tag you are using. One way to do this is by electing a health and safety representative. All of this together adds up to cow sense! The simplest castration method is to place rubber rings on calves under a month old with an elastrator. Even a 500-pound freshly weaned calf outweighs most people and could seriously injure or kill someone just playing. If there is no escape route, step sideways out of his best vision. People handling cattle must be well trained so they can: Farm owners, managers and employers must ensure that anyone handling cattle has enough experience, or is trained and supervised so no-one is put at risk. Shout for help. Good sanitary practices are an important part of preventing foodborne and zoonotic diseases. Tell people working with animals to wash their hands: Well-designed yards make it safer, not to mention easier, to manage cattle. This guide applies to anyone handling cattle, including farmers, farm employees, contractors and truck drivers. Have access gaps or flaps for a quick escape. Make the loading ramp 3–4.5 metres long with a 1 metre loading height for trucks. Needles are another common source of injury on the farm. CATTLE CARE & HANDLING GUIDELINES 7 DISEASE PREVENTION, HEALTH CARE, AND CATTLE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Like other species, cattle are susceptible to infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, toxins, parasites, neoplasia and injury. A qualified vet should do this. ‘To avoid doubt, a person required by the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 to take all practicable steps is required to take those steps only in respect of circumstances that the person knows or ought reasonably to know about. No one should lift a calf if it is too heavy for them. Dangerous situations that involve cattle are avoidable with proper training and competence. Sometimes they will get stressed, such as during castration, weaning and the first milking. Getting between the calf and the mother without a barrier or other protection, especially when weighing or ear-tagging a newborn calf. Give every animal an adequate break after each time you use the prodder. This page explores the effects that fear and temperament have on handling cattle, it covers: Behaviour. Alarmed and over-excited cattle are dangerous. While it may be fun to encourage a little calf to head butt your hand and push them away or to let them chase you, that could lead to a dangerous situation down the road. Select a well drained site with an all-weather access road. This reduces the chance of your feet slipping and helps the wound dry. they’re hurt because of unsafe facilities (eg poorly placed neck rails, poor flooring, obstacles), a dominant cow approaches another cow or an animal or person invades their personal space, the cow does not cope with the equipment or facility (eg poor lighting, noise from air-operated gates, slippery floors, stray electrical charges), they’re unwell (eg due to ryegrass staggers). Well, to get cattle to do what you want takes knowledge of animal behavior, access to good facilities, and proper handling techniques. Rocks, rubbish and debris can cause tripping injuries and may upset the movement of stock throughout the yards. All https://www.barchart.com/solutions/ is provided by Barchart Solutions. Animal-related injuries to employees can be due to preoccupation, impatience, or anger by the animal or the handler! A strong pair of trousers and leggings softens the severity of kick injuries. Cattle handling facilities are used to restrain individual animals during management practices (vaccinations, health treat-ments, pregnancy diagnosis, etc.). The guide outlines the potential hazards involved in handling cattle and gives recommendations on how to eliminate, isolate and minimise those hazards. Remove any sharp objects that could injure or frighten people and livestock. It makes you look smaller and less threatening. Don’t sell your problem animals to another farmer. How to I manage supply issues for personal protective equipment (PPE)? Make sure children wash their hands properly. Where pour-on cannot be used, drench animals by leaning over the rail and holding their heads, rather than getting in the race with them – or use a head bail. Keep yards tidy and well maintained 3. Use the cattle handling principles outlined in this guide. Older farmers (over 65 years) and children are most at risk of injury. For everyone’s safety be patient and let her move through the area slowly and calmly. Try to avoid mustering beef cows with young calves. Draft quiet cattle away from more excitable stock, eg cows from bulls, cows from calves, old from young. the nature and severity of harm that may be suffered if the result is not achieved; and, the current state of knowledge about the likelihood and severity of harm that will be suffered if the result is not achieved; and, the current state of knowledge about harm of that nature; and, the current state of knowledge about the means available to achieve the results and about the likely effectiveness of each of those means; and. Work in pairs and communicate regularly. Drenching involves working close to cattle. Walk down the ramp or catwalk to encourage the animals to go up (and vice versa) as shown in Figure 7. Module 1: Acclimation Developed in partnership with College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University and Production Animal Consultation (PAC), Dr. Tom Noffsinger, Dr. Dan Thomson and Dr. Paulo Loureiro discuss the benefits of acclimation. Always work from above the animal’s head – never through the rails. Build in access slots, especially between the forcing pen and working area. Avoid lifting calves if possible. Install a good head bail and crush. Beef Code of Practice Scientists’ Committee, National Farm Animal Care Council, 2012, Working Safely with Livestock, Thomas Bean. Think about the main flow. safe cattle handling requires that the animal is restrained. Instead of recapping the needle, immediately dispose of it in a hard-shelled sharps container. Ideally, the site should be level and on a raised area. The sides should be solid (with no distractions to stop the cattle moving forward) and high enough to stop stock climbing out. A rail that can be placed behind cattle in a race to stop them backing up. Cattle have a sharp sense of hearing. Experience shows that cattle will move quietly and easily through a race up to a head bail or truck if the race is lined with plywood from top to bottom. Hold it firmly – don’t let it struggle loose. Approach. Electric prodders – use them sparingly, especially in restricted areas or on bulls. Replace or rehang gates so they swing freely. Horn stubs are also hazardous. Safe Handling of Cattle on Farms – How Safe are You Page4 SafeHandlingofCattleonFarms | InformationSheet Grazingorwalking Cold,illor Threatening, frightened curiosityor sexualexcitement Galloping Kickingorplaying neutral slightlyantagonistic … WorkSafe NZ also thoroughly reviewed accident statistics and published academic literature, and looked at how overseas health and safety regulators manage the same issues. If possible, remove this before using the yards. Even if the puncture seems small or not a big deal, it is important to let someone know. These are better than working on foot, a quad bike or two-wheeled motorbike. It takes skill and practice to handle them safely. Castrating male beef cattle reduces aggression and makes handling easier. Children will mainly learn safe animal handling practices through helping their parents or other competent adults. enter cattle housing or handle cattle. Finding and fixing safety problems in handling cattle A person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU) has a duty to manage risks to the health and safety of workers and others. Cull animals that are often aggressive or hard to handle. Make sure the cattle have room to turn towards the race mouth. Use a ute or tractor, get someone to help, use a well-trained dog, or bring the bull along with a group of steers or cows to help keep it calm. In dangerous situations, turn side-on to cattle. They can crush people against rails and fences, trample over fallen people or step on toes. For related content and insights from industry experts, sign up for Successful Farming newsletters. Place needles in a sharps container with a lid and dispose of them correctly. They must not do any ‘work activity’. This reduces the calf’s stress and is the safest method for the farmer. Put down non-slip scored or stepped surfaces so the animals don’t slip. Only physically fit and strong people should lift calves. Reverse the top gudgeon to prevent gates being lifted off. Even a pet cow will not stand still for something that causes pain, discomfort or annoyance. Eiholzer stressed the importance of safely handling calves in her presentation. Before working with cattle, try to leave them in the yards for about 30 minutes so they can calm down. A sturdy device designed to keep an animal still while animal handling or veterinary tasks are done. Cattle have minds of their own, a huge weight advantage and move surprisingly fast. Muddy yards are unsatisfactory. twist the needle hand as you press down on the plunger. Controlling direction of movement. Cattle have two balance lines. Select the best vehicle for the job considering the task and terrain. Animal handlers must be familiar with cattle behaviour (through training, experience or mentorship) and use quiet handling techniques. 12 Tips for Handling Cattle Easily & Safely. A long, narrow pen in a stockyard that stock are forced through for drafting or other animal handling tasks. Regardless of the breed, Eiholzer pointed out, “They can really do damage just with their physical size.”, Most accidents are not because cattle are aggressive. A type of bacteria. 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