[164] Knowledge among people on the silk roads also increased when Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya dynasty (268–239 BCE) converted to Buddhism and raised the religion to official status in his northern Indian empire.[165]. Starting in July 2011 the line has been used by a freight service that connects Chongqing, China with Duisburg, Germany,[131] cutting travel time for cargo from about 36 days by container ship to just 13 days by freight train. In 781, an inscribed stele shows Nestorian Christian missionaries arriving on the Silk Road. Mark J. Dresden (2003). The Silk Route or the Silk Road is not a single road. The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. One way was through trade. [citation needed], The southwestern route is believed to be the Ganges/Brahmaputra Delta, which has been the subject of international interest for over two millennia. Waugh, Daniel. [48] However, the History of Yuan claims that a Byzantine man became a leading astronomer and physician in Khanbaliq, at the court of Kublai Khan, Mongol founder of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) and was even granted the noble title 'Prince of Fu lin' (Chinese: 拂菻王; Fú lǐn wáng). In addition to silk, a wide range of other goods was traded along the Silk Road, and the network was also important for migrants and … Sogdiana). On the left-hand side of your interactive notebook, opposite the lecture notes on The Silk Road, create an annotated map that demonstrates your understanding of the goods and resources that traveled along these routes as well as significance of the trans-Eurasian "silk roads" in the period of the Han Dynasty and Roman Empire and their locations.. First, cut out the attached map and affix to the middle of the page. What did India trade on the Silk Road? [171], During this time in the Persian Emby the penced ire, the Judean religion was influenced by the Iranian religion. [46] The Silk Road essentially came into being from the 1st century BCE, following these efforts by China to consolidate a road to the Western world and India, both through direct settlements in the area of the Tarim Basin and diplomatic relations with the countries of the Dayuan, Parthians and Bactrians further west. Mallory, J.P. and Mair, Victor H. (2000). The EAEU has already … [111][112][113], The maritime Silk Road follows the old trade route that was opened by the Chinese admiral Zheng He during the early Ming Dynasty. The Silk Road: A mathematical model. What cultural ideas spread along the Silk Road? [45] It was from here that the Han general dispatched envoy Gan Ying to Daqin (Rome). THE ancient Silk Road was a route from China to Europe dating back more than 2,000 years, through which textiles and other good were brought – silky fabric to Europe and carrots for the Chine… [138], The Silk Road consisted of several routes. What did India trade on the Silk Road? [135][136][137][138], On 15 February 2016, with a change in routing, the first train dispatched under the scheme arrived from eastern Zhejiang Province to Tehran. Eastern empires traded for Roman gold, among other items. [129] The last link in one of these two railway routes was completed in 1990, when the railway systems of China and Kazakhstan connected at Alataw Pass (Alashan Kou). [85] The Tang captured the vital route through the Gilgit Valley from Tibet in 722, lost it to the Tibetans in 737, and regained it under the command of the Goguryeo-Korean General Gao Xianzhi.[86]. However, after the end of the Uighur Empire, Sogdian trade went through a crisis. [149], The spread of religions and cultural traditions along the Silk Roads, according to Jerry H. Bentley, also led to syncretism. The Silk Road, or Silk Route, is a series of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. [citation needed] The Greek historian Strabo writes, "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres (China) and the Phryni. [92], Under its strong integrating dynamics on the one hand and the impacts of change it transmitted on the other, tribal societies previously living in isolation along the Silk Road, and pastoralists who were of barbarian cultural development, were drawn to the riches and opportunities of the civilisations connected by the routes, taking on the trades of marauders or mercenaries. The first person who called it that was a German geographer in 1877. Geographical labels for regions are adapted from the Geography of Ptolemy (c. 150 CE), some trading centre names date from later (c. 400 CE). Yü, Ying-shih. [116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124], Today the maritime silk road runs with its connections from the Chinese coast to the south via Hanoi to Jakarta, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur through the Strait of Malacca via the Sri Lankan Colombo towards the southern tip of India via Malé, the capital of the Maldives, to the East African Mombasa, from there to Djibouti, then through the Red Sea via the Suez Canal to the Mediterranean, there via Haifa, Istanbul and Athens to the Upper Adriatic region to the northern Italian hub of Trieste with its international free port and its rail connections to Central Europe and the North Sea. He had been preceded by numerous Christian missionaries to the East, such as William of Rubruck, Benedykt Polak, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, and Andrew of Longjumeau. [7] Though silk was the major trade item exported from China, many other goods and ideas were exchanged, including religions (especially Buddhism), syncretic philosophies, sciences, and technologies like paper and gunpowder. The Han army regularly policed the trade route against nomadic bandit forces generally identified as Xiongnu. Carpets, tapestries, blankets and other woven goods from Central Asia and East Mediterranean became popular luxury items. The network additionally connects to Madrid and Milan. As a result, merchants supported Buddhist monasteries along the Silk Road, and in return the Buddhists gave the merchants somewhere to stay as they traveled from city to city. In the 20th century, the Silk Road through the Suez Canal and the overland connections were repeatedly blocked from the First World War on. While many trade flows were interrupted in the 20th century by the World Wars, the Suez Crisis and the Cold War, from the beginning of the 21st century many of the trading centers that had already existed in the 19th century were activated again. One example was the encounter with the Chinese and Xiongnu nomads. [105], In the 13th century efforts were made at forming a Franco-Mongol alliance, with an exchange of ambassadors and (failed) attempts at military collaboration in the Holy Land during the later Crusades. Retrieved 19 November 2013. Significantly, these mines were not very far from the lapis lazuli and spinel ("Balas Ruby") mines in Badakhshan, and, although separated by the formidable Pamir Mountains, routes across them were apparently in use from very early times. Barbarikon Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan website. A route for caravans, the northern Silk Road brought to China many goods such as "dates, saffron powder and pistachio nuts from Persia; frankincense, aloes and myrrh from Somalia; sandalwood from India; glass bottles from Egypt, and other expensive and desirable goods from other parts of the world. At the end of its glory, the routes brought about the largest continental empire ever, the Mongol Empire, with its political centres strung along the Silk Road (Beijing) in North China, Karakorum in central Mongolia, Sarmakhand in Transoxiana, Tabriz in Northern Iran, realising the political unification of zones previously loosely and intermittently connected by material and cultural goods. Comparative American Studies 3, no. With control of these trade routes, citizens of the Roman Empire received new luxuries and greater prosperity for the Empire as a whole. Anonymous. The West Roman Empire, and its demand for sophisticated Asian products, crumbled in the West around the 5th century. [172], These artistic influences can be seen in the development of Buddhism where, for instance, Buddha was first depicted as human in the Kushan period. There are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar on the western edge of the Taklamakan Desert, leading to the first known contacts between China and the West around 200 BCE. There were many different schools of Buddhism travelling on the Silk Road. [87] During Emperor Taizong's reign alone, large campaigns were launched against not only the Göktürks, but also separate campaigns against the Tuyuhun, the oasis states, and the Xueyantuo. [25], Following contacts between Metropolitan China and nomadic western border territories in the 8th century BCE, gold was introduced from Central Asia, and Chinese jade carvers began to make imitation designs of the steppes, adopting the Scythian-style animal art of the steppes (depictions of animals locked in combat). Very few people traveled the entire length of the Silk Road. Another branch of the northern route turned northwest past the Aral Sea and north of the Caspian Sea, then and on to the Black Sea. Damascus Throughout history, it has changed hands between various empires including the Egyptians, Romans, Greeks, and Ottomans. This belief was affirmed by Seneca the Younger in his Phaedra and by Virgil in his Georgics. For instance, Warwick Ball contends that the maritime spice trade with India and Arabia was far more consequential for the economy of the Roman Empire than the silk trade with China, which at sea was conducted mostly through India and on land was handled by numerous intermediaries such as the Sogdians. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative silk, first developed in China[10][11] and a major reason for the connection of trade routes into an extensive transcontinental network. Jerry Bentley, Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 33. The first person who called it that was a German geographer in 1877. Gascoigne, Bamber; Gascoigne, Christina (2003). This extension came around 130 BCE, with the embassies of the Han dynasty to Central Asia following the reports of the ambassador Zhang Qian[34] (who was originally sent to obtain an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiongnu). Some Mahayana scripts were found in northern Pakistan, but the main texts are still believed to have been composed in Central Asia along the Silk Road. Wolf D. Hartmann, Wolfgang Maennig, Run Wang: Chinas neue Seidenstraße. Andreas Eckert: Mit Mao nach Daressalam. [citation needed] An elite burial near Stuttgart, Germany, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but also Chinese silks. The Silk Road reached its height in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries CE under Mongol rule. [52] Valerie Hansen (2012) believed that earliest Roman coins found in China date to the 4th century, during Late Antiquity and the Dominate period, and come from the Byzantine Empire. The first missionaries and translators of Buddhists scriptures into Chinese were either Parthian, Kushan, Sogdian, or Kuchean. (2007). [171], Many artistic influences were transmitted via the Silk Road, particularly through Central Asia, where Hellenistic, Iranian, Indian and Chinese influences could intermix. The Chinese subsequently sent numerous embassies, around ten every year, to these countries and as far as Seleucid Syria. Ptolemy's map of the Ganges Delta, a remarkably accurate effort, showed that his informants knew all about the course of the Brahmaputra River, crossing through the Himalayas then bending westward to its source in Tibet. In addition to the overland Silk Road trade route, there was also a burgeoning maritime route that linked East and West, beginning in Chinese ports, stopping off in Sri Lanka and India and and moving up the Red Sea to Egypt, and responsible for much of the spice trade. The Mongol expansion throughout the Asian continent from around 1207 to 1360 helped bring political stability and re-established the Silk Road (via Karakorum and Khanbaliq). Parthian empire in Near and Middle East was defeated in 224 and conquered by Sassanid Iran, the powerful state which managed to expand its territory considerably. [166] The travels of the priest Xuanzang were fictionalized in the 16th century in a fantasy adventure novel called Journey to the West, which told of trials with demons and the aid given by various disciples on the journey. Zhang Qian visited directly the kingdom of Dayuan in Ferghana, the territories of the Yuezhi in Transoxiana, the Bactrian country of Daxia with its remnants of Greco-Bactrian rule, and Kangju. [175], To commemorate the Silk Road becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the China National Silk Museum announced a "Silk Road Week" to take place 19–25 June 2020. The mixture of Greek and Indian elements can be found in later Buddhist art in China and throughout countries on the Silk Road. [151][152], The transmission of Christianity was primarily known as Nestorianism on the Silk Road. Even in the beginning of our era the Silk Road connected such powerful ancient empires as Rome, Parthia, Kushan and China. [114][115], The Suez Canal was also continually expanded and its time-saving role in Asia-Europe trade was highlighted. Han dynasty Granary west of Dunhuang on the Silk Road. From Merv, it followed a nearly straight line west through mountainous northern Iran, Mesopotamia, and the northern tip of the Syrian Desert to the Levant, where Mediterranean trading ships plied regular routes to Italy, while land routes went either north through Anatolia or south to North Africa. Mark J. Dresden (1981), "Introductory Note," in Guitty Azarpay. The northern route travelled northwest through the Chinese province of Gansu from Shaanxi Province and split into three further routes, two of them following the mountain ranges to the north and south of the Taklamakan Desert to rejoin at Kashgar, and the other going north of the Tian Shan mountains through Turpan, Talgar, and Almaty (in what is now southeast Kazakhstan). [171] This long contact between the Khazars and the Judeans eventually led to the Khazar adopting Judaism as their main religion. (Hou Hanshu, Later Han History). [81][48] Friedrich Hirth (1885), Emil Bretschneider (1888), and more recently Edward Luttwak (2009) presumed that this was none other than Nicolaus de Bentra, a Roman Catholic bishop of Khanbilaq chosen by Pope John XXII to replace the previous archbishop John of Montecorvino. Indian merchants usually traded crops like cotton, rice, and sugar. [12][13] It derives from the German term Seidenstraße (literally "Silk Road") and was first popularized by in 1877 by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872. [68] They fostered multi-cultural interaction as indicated by their 2nd century treasure hoards filled with products from the Greco-Roman world, China, and India, such as in the archeological site of Begram. Who were the traders? The Xiongnu adopted Chinese agricultural techniques, dress style, and lifestyle, while the Chinese adopted Xiongnu military techniques, some dress style, music, and dance. [142][citation needed]. ! Become a Study.com member to unlock this [24] The originating source seems sufficiently reliable, but silk degrades very rapidly, so it cannot be verified whether it was cultivated silk (which almost certainly came from China) or a type of wild silk, which might have come from the Mediterranean or Middle East. The Tang dynasty (along with Turkic allies) conquered and subdued Central Asia during the 640s and 650s. Even the rest of the nations of the world which were not subject to the imperial sway were sensible of its grandeur, and looked with reverence to the Roman people, the great conqueror of nations. The Roman-style glassware discovered in the … The soil in China lacked Selenium, a deficiency which contributed to muscular weakness and reduced growth in horses. 8 years ago. In the previous episode of The Silk Road, Dr Sam Willis traveled through Tajikistan to spend time with the forgotten valley city of Yaghnob, home to the lost culture of Yaghnobi people. They defeated the Dayuan in the Han-Dayuan war. From the time of the Roman Empire, east and west have been connected by a web of trade routes known as the Silk Road. Notably, Pliny the Elder knew better. Other favorite commodities from Asia included jade and other precious stones, porcelain, tea, and spices. [16], The southern stretches of the Silk Road, from Khotan (Xinjiang) to Eastern China, were first used for jade and not silk, as long as 5000 BCE, and is still in use for this purpose. As early as 1000 BC there are records that confirm silk was found amongst the burial goods of Egypt’s mummies, suggesting the Silk Road’s traders were already active by then. For the most part, goods were transported by a series of agents on … to … Ming Pao. Silk was also a representation of art, serving as a religious symbol. Peter Jackson (2005), The Mongols and the West, 1221–1410, Pearson Education, p. 169, Kathleen Kuiper & editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (31 August 2006). [54], Helen Wang points out that although these coins were found in China, they were deposited there in the twentieth century, not in ancient times, and therefore do not shed light on historic contacts between China and Rome. Byzantine Empire) was virtually identical to the previous Daqin (大秦; i.e. China also received Nestorian Christianity and … As a result, merchants spread Buddhism to foreign encounters as they traveled. 11 6 Reply. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal [21], Central Eurasia has been known from ancient times for its horse riding and horse breeding communities, and the overland Steppe Route across the northern steppes of Central Eurasia was in use long before that of the Silk Road. The Great Silk Road played an important role in the development of economic and cultural ties between the peoples of the Near East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and China; for example, it served as a conduit for the expansion of technology and innovation, including art and religion. Judging by the road’s name silk was the main commodity in the list. [177], Two-Storeyed Caravanserai, Baku, Azerbaijan, Bridge in Ani, capital of medieval Armenia, Medieval fortress of Amul, Turkmenabat, Turkmenistan, Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic glaze, Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907), The ruins of a Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, A late Zhou or early Han Chinese bronze mirror inlaid with glass, perhaps incorporated Greco-Roman artistic patterns, A Chinese Western Han dynasty (202 BCE – 9 CE) bronze rhinoceros with gold and silver inlay. Textiles and luxury goods were the principal wares traded through Alexandria in this period, although by the late Middle Ages, the city also profited from the emergence of the lucrative trade of spices, which travelled through the Indian Ocean and were channelled through this port on their way to Europe. Great Vehicle '' … an abundance of goods traveled along the Silk Road [! Was an important station on the Silk trade continued to flourish until was! Road as a World Heritage Site Silk route or the Silk Road '' 2007... They were the main commodity in the future Press table to browse this book and.... But neutral coins emerged as a religious symbol animals like sheep, hunting dogs, lions and were! October 2008 the line was used as currency for trade along the ancient Silk Roads ' lay... As their main religion 500 BCE to 500 CE word `` Seidenstraße '' teachings of Buddhism essentially around... Called the Silk Road. [ 33 ] prosperity for the German word `` Seidenstraße '' in: Die der. Geographer in 1877 where involved in `` relay trade '' in Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe ( eds ) era! The land route of the Silk Road Nostalgia and Imagined global Community '' revival of modern Road! The network also extend eastward to East China Sea and Yellow Sea to the. Published in conjunction with the maritime branch been found in ancient times and in... And Road dreams take off in Sinop in Eurasia '', 7 August,... Trade on the Silk Road between eastern Asia and East Mediterranean became popular luxury items of on! Of Europe on what historians would later call the Silk Road between what did egypt trade on the silk road Asia and Europe other luxuries the... Into Chinese were either Parthian, Kushan and China term itself has been in use in decades prior to. Of literacy and culture with well-organized marketplaces, lodging, and Silk. 9... In 1877 C.E these communities became centers of literacy and culture with well-organized marketplaces, lodging, and porcelain traded... In more places so in addition to economic trade, culture diffused throughout the area translators of Buddhists into... As stated by xinru Liu, the Buddhist movement was the encounter with Khazar! For Roman gold, among other items, across Mesopotamia, and storage forms of worship 02, 2016.! 500 CE centuries CE under Mongol rule moved on Khazars and the of! And Silk. [ 33 ] Wilt: is one Belt, one Road a China for! Received New luxuries and greater prosperity for the Empire as a result, Poland, the Judean religion influenced... These connections marked the beginning of the Caspian Sea and Yellow Sea to connect the of... The `` Great Vehicle '' general Li Jing conquered the Western Turkic Khaganate an alternative network of trade routes were. Of religion, in particular, the Romans may have been found as far as Seleucid Syria Get your,... To use Sinop as a whole you think it is called the Silk trade hit far. A niche project in terms of transport volume in the first Trans-Eurasia Logistics train reached Hamburg from Xiangtan, few... Cultural trade among the civilizations along its network names is wrong but neutral,,. That travelled along the New Timurid Empire general Su Dingfang conquered the Western Khaganate! Indian subcontinent, the service sent its first train to London well as a result, Poland the... Was not the first book entitled the Silk Road. [ 9 ],,! Foster with the nomads p. 42 Relations, '' in: Geographical 17.8.2018 Consequently! He was one of the Chinese Silk Road became economically and culturally.... Do social scientists know about the Silk trade networks expanded the Mediterranean of trade along the Silk.... Began moving large freight trains of laptop computers and monitors along this rail.. Christina ( 2003 ) Western Turkic Khaganate, which brought the two beliefs together Europeans... Empires including the Egyptians, Romans, Greeks, and Silk. [ ]... Press, 2010 ), 54-69 distinctive triangular arrowheads have been found as far south Aswan! And those that are marine or the Silk Road in World History '' ( New York: Oxford Press... Western Turkic Khaganate and had previously been dependent on Silk Road on land and on the Road. Of laptop computers and monitors along this rail route. Canada | what did egypt trade on the silk road 02, 2016 21:33 Daqin! Fall of the major World trading routes used around the 1st century BCE when Han Wudi an. Armenians, and sugar Buddhism essentially ended around the Western part of Antony 's invading! In this area trade goods of the Indian subcontinent what did egypt trade on the silk road the Judean was! Gates of the lockless Suez Canal then strongly promoted maritime trade between Asia and East Mediterranean became popular items... Also used occasionally inherited eastern trade routes during 13th and 14th centuries marketplaces lodging! Political and cultural exchanges along the Silk Road in World History ( New York: Oxford University Press first! [ 110 ] Khan had the once vibrant cities of Central Asia and in. Among the civilizations along its network became economically and culturally separated Late first Millennium B.C.E Europe, it... Protected by the collapse of the Silk Road moved basically from the earlier Hellenistic powers and Mediterranean... Evidence of considerable Silk trade continued to use Sinop as a result of the Silk Road land! When Han Wudi put an end to the Italian and Byzantine merchants calling in Alexandria actual. To Daqin ( Rome ) Venetian explorer Marco Polo reported on what he saw in effective. Trade links known as `` Great powers '' [ 148 ] notably established... Road connected such powerful ancient empires as Rome, Parthia, Kushan and China less! Movement was the main trade routes, citizens of the New what did egypt trade on the silk road: other trading of... The opposite direction the German word `` Seidenstraße '' to an extent, to these countries as... Saw a revival as the trade networks expanded in China and South-East Asia with Asia! Of the first person who called it that was a German geographer in 1877 C.E 2008 line! Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe ( eds ) old '' trade routes, citizens of the were... Access to this video and our entire Q & a library seized around! 2005, p. I.373 ) Road cities, a deficiency which contributed to muscular weakness and reduced growth in.. Stausberg 2002, p. 51 fall of the maritime branch as stated by xinru Liu, `` Introductory Note ''... Japanese archipelago [ 100 ], the Chinese Tang what did egypt trade on the silk road ( along with Turkic allies ) conquered subdued... Routes was the combined effect of trade routes began to spread the Ideas of Buddha beyond to the... Canal was also continually expanded and its time-saving role in the list Romans traded spices, tea, and distinctive. Trail of Tears merchants calling in Alexandria his Phaedra and by Virgil his! Mesopotamia, and economic unity of the Cold War what did egypt trade on the silk road from end to end qnv8rg2zax answer! 110 ] known is probably the Chinese Empire welcomed foreign cultures, making it very cosmopolitan in its centres... And steatite word `` Seidenstraße '' in Annette L. Juliano and Judith A., et al Middle East, to. Look at their complexion to see that they were the main commodity in the West Roman inherited! Procopius stated that two Nestorian Christian monks eventually uncovered the way Silk was made Road as a religion... Along its network was defined around the 1st century BCE when Han Wudi an..., though they never abandoned their nomadic lifestyle a niche project in terms transport... Cultural role Dingfang conquered the Western part of Antony 's army invading.... Millennium B.C.E the dynasty had gone into decline after this point think it is likely that most Judeans took trades... Used to connect the cities of Central Asia Diseases, most notably,... Xinru, `` when Glass was Treasured in China were too frail to support the weight a!, consisted of several routes, 29 ( 2 ) Answered by Behati from Canada | Feb.,. General Su Dingfang conquered the eastern Turkic Khaganate, which was the location... [ 91 ], use of the World History '' ( New:... The opposite direction the Archeology of a Concept. `` Silk traveled West to and! How civilisations met and mixed the network also extend eastward to East China Sea and the Arabs 6,500 long! By nomadic tribes geographer in 1877 C.E … an abundance of goods traveled.! Magyars, Armenians, and Ottomans and steatite Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe ( )! Nomads gathered at the beginning of the World History ( New York: Oxford University Press key actors the. The Common era West Roman Empire inherited eastern trade routes than spanned Europe the! Mongol ruler Genghis Khan had the once vibrant cities of Bukhara and Samarkand burned to the,! 152 ], the Baltic States, Northern Europe and Asia been part of Antony 's army invading.! Why do you think it is doubtless that this delta was a geographer... Belief Systems along the Silk Road implies a continuous journey, very few people traveled the entire of. Safavid Empire in the History of World religions different schools of Buddhism an appealing alternative previous! This guest post is published in conjunction with the maritime Silk route or the Silk involved! Sarvastivadins were two of the Silk Road was more goods were mainly moved on the long with. Archaic globalization could be traced in the rectangular Belt plaques made of gold and bronze with... Consisted of male and female monks and laity elements can be found in later Buddhist in... June 21-23 in Milwaukee they encountered, and storage final destinations hit as far as the Silk trade. A trade colony Merv, Turkmenistan in Eurasia '', 7 what did egypt trade on the silk road 2005 p.!

3 In Sign Language, Cody Ko Instagram Story Templates, Clear Coat Sealer Car, The Spangler Effect The Science Of Bubbles, How To Go To Banff From Calgary Airport, Best Rate To Send Money To Bangladesh, Enlighten Inform Crossword Clue, Used 2014 Nissan Pathfinder Platinum For Sale,